According to the researchers, systemic chemotherapy has demonstrated limited success in treating melanoma brain metastases. The current standard treatment approaches, including surgery and radiotherapy, have modestly improved the clinical outcomes. However, with a median survival of approximately eight months, melanoma patients are eagerly awaiting the development of new targeted therapies. The response rates to chemotherapy regimens are very low in patients with metastatic melanoma. A new emphasis on treating patients with brain metastases is being seen in the clinical development of drugs recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for management of unresectable metastatic melanoma. For example, Ipilimumab, an immunotherapy, was approved by the FDA in March 2011 for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Although initial studies excluded patients with active brain metastases, newer studies indicate that Ipilimumab is able to generate effective immune responses against brain metastases, as well as melanoma metastases, in extracranial sites. Further results from ongoing studies are awaited to define its precise role in these patients.